2018-11-20T09:35:27Z
http://ijstc.shirazu.ac.ir/?_action=export&rf=summon&issue=524
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology Transactions of Civil Engineering
2228-6160
2228-6160
2015
39
C1
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS USING MIXED FORCE-DISPLACEMENT METHOD VIA SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION
The present approach is a combination of the force method and displacement approach<br />to achieve the analysis using the substructuring technique. In this method, the inverse of the<br />stiffness matrices of the substructures are constructed for the formation of the flexibility matrices.<br />This part of the solution is equivalent to the stiffness approach. In the subsequent stage, the results<br />of the analysis are assembled using the singular value decomposition (SVD) and the solution for<br />the entire structure is obtained. In fact, for assembling the structure, we need the flexibility<br />matrices of the substructures which are obtained by the stiffness method.<br />In this paper, a mixed force-displacement method is applied to finite element models for<br />increasing the speed of their solution. Each substructure is analyzed independently by singular<br />value decomposition of the corresponding equilibrium matrix. Methods are then utilized for<br />transforming the substructures into regular forms whenever it is possible. The application of this<br />method in finite element models with different substructures improves the process of analysis, and<br />makes the use of the existing solution techniques possible for regular systems.
Mixed force-displacement method
substructuring
singular value decomposition of equilibrium matrix
regular forms
finite element analysis
2015
02
01
1
19
http://ijstc.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2736_dba1f230f6da4cb9e929543cb2c58801.pdf
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology Transactions of Civil Engineering
2228-6160
2228-6160
2015
39
C1
OPTIMUM PARAMETERS OF TUNED MASS DAMPERS FOR SEISMIC APPLICATIONS USING CHARGED SYSTEM SEARCH
In this paper, optimum parameters of Tuned Mass Dampers (TMD) are determined<br />to minimize the dynamic response of multi-story building systems under seismic excitations.<br />Charged System Search (CSS), as an efficient optimization algorithm, is revised and applied for<br />tuning passive mass dampers. A MATLAB program is developed for numerical optimization and<br />time domain simulation. Optimization criteria are the peak values of the first story displacement<br />with and without TMD, and the transfer function from input ground acceleration to the first story<br />acceleration response. An alternative formulation is also presented for solving state space<br />equations. Compared to other population-based meta-heuristics, the charged system search has a<br />number of advantages distinguishing this algorithm from the others. However, for improving<br />exploitation (the fine search around a local optimum), it is hybridized with HS that utilizes charged<br />memory (CM) to speed up its convergence. To ensure good performance of this approach, some<br />numerical considerations are conducted to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the presented<br />approach.
Tuned mass damper
charged system search
structural control
state space equations of motion
2015
02
01
21
40
http://ijstc.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2739_dcb0574550239b0e5d13c4f3c01dc086.pdf
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology Transactions of Civil Engineering
2228-6160
2228-6160
2015
39
C1
PERFORMANCE OF RC BEAMS STRENGTHENED FOR SHEAR AND FLEXURE USING DIFFERENT SCHEMES OF U-SHAPED CFRP ANCHORAGES AND/OR STRIPS
Deficiencies of RC structures can be overcome by strengthening/retrofitting using<br />different strengthening methodologies. This paper emphasises the effectiveness of externally<br />applied U-shaped CFRP anchorages/strips on the performance of RC beams of relatively low<br />compressive strengths (approximately 21 MPa). Three types of the beams were cast based on the<br />shear reinforcement detailed as containing “no shear reinforcement”, “minimum shear<br />reinforcement” and “adequate shear reinforcements” as suggested in ACI 318-08. All beams were<br />provided adequate flexural reinforcement as recommended by ACI 318 to fail the beams in<br />flexure. U-shaped CFRP anchorages and strips were bonded to the beams in the predominant shear<br />and flexural loading regions and tested under four-point bending condition by varying shear spanto-<br />depth ratio (a/d) as 2.46 and 3.38. Different strengthening schemes (including CFRP anchorage<br />alone and in combination with CFRP strips) as well as the effect of U-shaped CFRP anchorages<br />applied over full and partial applied beam depth was also the parameter of investigation in the<br />current study. Results showed that externally bonded U-shaped anchorages applied along the beam<br />span and at the ends together with CFRP strips improved the deformability, strength and<br />performance of RC beams by transforming failure manner from brittle to ductile. Moreover, use of<br />partial depth anchorage is beneficial to attain higher load in comparison to the full depth<br />anchorages, particularly anchorage height equal to 3/4 of the beam depth is found to be most<br />suitable.
Carbon fibre reinforced polymer
Reinforced concrete beams
Shear span to depth ratio
2015
02
01
41
51
http://ijstc.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2741_2ff0a5cf7b25b46bec2dd557e7cd8f6e.pdf
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology Transactions of Civil Engineering
2228-6160
2228-6160
2015
39
C1
SHEAR STRENGTH OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS–RELATIONAL DATA BASE
Shear capacity of concrete (Vc) in reinforced concrete members depends on a number<br />of influencing parameters including compressive strength of concrete (ƒ), ratio of tension<br />reinforcement (), shear span to depth ratio (<br />), size effect or depth factor (ξ), size of the aggregate<br />in relation to the minimum size of the member (aggregate interlock aspects). Over the last several<br />decades, researchers have tested reinforced concrete beams (without web reinforcement) to study<br />these parameters over a range limited by the breadth and depth of their experimental investigations<br />and, on the basis of their experimental results, proposed empirical equations for predicting the<br />shear capacity of concrete in reinforced concrete beams.<br />In this paper a relational database using ACCESS software is developed. The database<br />contains experimental results of 2145 shear critical reinforced concrete beams without web<br />reinforcement.<br />Using the ACCESS shear database developed in this study, an evaluation was conducted to<br />assess the predictive accuracy of shear design equation of Euro Code EC2. The results indicate<br />that the Euro Code EC2 design equations are found to be adequately conservative to predict the<br />shear capacity of reinforced concrete beams over the range of variables considered in this study.
Shear strength
concrete compressive strength
shear span to depth ratio empirical equations
database
2015
02
01
53
63
http://ijstc.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2750_c433a77a5b07e64be3046219313f6d0a.pdf
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology Transactions of Civil Engineering
2228-6160
2228-6160
2015
39
C1
EVALUATING TOPOLOGY DESIGN OF MATERIAL LAYOUT IN STEEL PLATE STRUCTURES WITH HIGH STIFFNESS AND EIGENFREQUENCY
This study presents optimal distributions of steel materials in steel thin plate structures<br />determined by using a classical element-wise and the present node-wise topology optimization<br />design methods for a dynamic problem. More specifically, the present article describes an<br />application of a node-wise topology optimization technique to the problem of maximizing<br />fundamental frequency for plane structure. The terms element-and node-wise indicate the use of<br />element and node densities, respectively, as design parameters on a given design space. For a<br />dynamic free vibration problem, the objective function in general is to achieve maximum<br />eigenfrequency with first-order eigenmode subject to a given limited material, since structures<br />with a high fundamental frequency have a tendency to be reasonably stiff. For both static and<br />dynamic problems SIMP (Solid Isotropic Microstructure with Penalization for Intermediate<br />Density) material artificially penalizing the relation between density and stiffness is used in this<br />study, and an implemented optimization technique is the method of moving asymptotes usually<br />used for topology optimization. Numerical applications topologically maximizing the first-order<br />eigenfrequency and depending on element or node densities as design parameters and varied<br />boundary conditions to verify the present optimization design method provide appropriate<br />manufacturing information for optimally form-finding of steel materials with Poisson’s ratio of 0.3<br />into thin plates.
Topology optimization
material layout
stiffness
eigenfrequency
Plate
SIMP
2015
02
01
65
79
http://ijstc.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2751_222e076399e5c646d72d5c3723f025ff.pdf
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology Transactions of Civil Engineering
2228-6160
2228-6160
2015
39
C1
DETERMINATION OF MODAL DAMPING RATIOS FOR NON-CLASSICALLY DAMPED REHABILITATED STEEL STRUCTURES
There are many reasons for rehabilitation of existing buildings. Adding stories is one of<br />the most common reasons. When a steel building is retrofitted by concrete jacketing for adding<br />stories, this system contains several structural systems. These systems are composite concrete and<br />steel systems in initial stories, welded steel system in middle stories and cold-formed steel frames<br />in upper stories. Dynamic analysis of hybrid structures is usually a complex procedure due to<br />various dynamic characteristics of each part, i.e. stiffness, mass and especially damping.<br />Availability of different damping factors causes a higher degree of complication for evaluating<br />seismic responses of hybrid systems. Due to using several structural systems, an existing building<br />is changed to hybrid system. Damping matrix of these structures is non-classical. Also, the<br />nonlinear software is not able to analyze these structures precisely. In this study, a method and<br />graphs have been proposed to determine the equivalent modal damping ratios for rehabilitated<br />existing steel buildings for adding stories.
Hybrid buildings
damping ratio
rehabilitation
non-classical damping
nonlinear analysis
2015
02
01
81
92
http://ijstc.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2754_a25a4e7247e516eb333597d6657463d2.pdf
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology Transactions of Civil Engineering
2228-6160
2228-6160
2015
39
C1
STRENGTH AND FRACTURE PROPERTIES OF HYBRID FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE
This paper investigated the shear, impact and fracture strengths of high-strength<br />concrete reinforced with two different industrial waste fibres. Locally available steel lathe waste<br />and nylon waste were used at different volume fractions as fibre cocktails in concrete. Steel lathe<br />wastes were used as-received lengths and nylon fibres were chopped into 40 mm lengths in this<br />investigation. In total, 12 hybrid mixes were casted and tested at four different volume fractions<br />(0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%). The experimental programme was used the slump test and the air<br />content test on the fresh concrete. The hardened concrete was tested for its shear and impact<br />strength. A flexural test on notched beams under three-point bending was also carried out<br />according to the RILEM 50-FMC committee recommendations. Load vs. mid-span deflection and<br />load vs. crack mouth opening displacement were obtained and the fracture energy was evaluated.<br />The best performance was obtained in hybrid which was enhanced due to the hybrid nature of the<br />fibre cocktails of all the mixes, 2% volume fraction with a combination of steel ½ + nylon ½ fibres<br />gives the best performance. The steel lathe waste fibres mainly contributed to limiting the crack<br />initiation and lightweight non-metallic nylon fibres restricted the crack propagation. The combined<br />advantages of these fibres provide high mechanical and fracture strength. Hence this hybrid fibre<br />reinforced concrete with industrial waste fibres is doubly advantageous as it provides a superior<br />performance without increasing the cost of the concrete.
Fibre reinforcement
high-strength concrete
Mechanical properties
fracture energy
industrial waste
2015
02
01
93
102
http://ijstc.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2756_2f2e2dde60aa3b5420df3768272c642b.pdf
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology Transactions of Civil Engineering
2228-6160
2228-6160
2015
39
C1
SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF RC FRAMES RETROFITTED BY FRP AT JOINTS USING A FLANGE-BONDED SCHEME
A new, FRP flange-bonded scheme, with practical application to 3D RC frames and<br />with the aim of relocating plastic hinges away from the joints is presented and its performance is<br />compared with that of the web-bonded scheme. For this purpose, nonlinear pushover analyses of<br />detailed Finite Element (FE) models of retrofitted joints of a benchmark RC frame are carried out.<br />The optimal thicknesses of the Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) sheets for relocating the plastic<br />hinges are first determined. The moment-rotation curves of the joints are then utilised to create a<br />representing model for the RC frame. Further, nonlinear pushover analyses are carried out on the<br />retrofitted and the original frame to evaluate their capacity curves and seismic performance<br />parameters such as ductility, behaviour factor and performance points in relation to a specified<br />demand earthquake. The results are then compared with those of the same frame when retrofitted<br />with the web-bonded scheme as well as with steel bracing. Results point to the marked superiority<br />of the flange-bonded scheme compared to the web-bonded scheme in different aspects including,<br />capacity, ductility and the performance level and cost. The performance of the FRP flange-bonded<br />scheme also compares well with that of the steel bracing method.
Seismic retrofitting
RC frames
FRP
joint
nonlinear static (pushover) analysis
performance level
web-bonded
flange-bonded
steel bracing
2015
02
01
103
123
http://ijstc.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2757_bf4b8957b91c6824cdd58121934838f0.pdf
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology Transactions of Civil Engineering
2228-6160
2228-6160
2015
39
C1
A COMPARATIVE NUMERICAL STUDY OF A GEOSYNTHETICREINFORCED SOIL WALL USING THREE DIFFERENT CONSTITUTIVE SOIL MODELS
In this paper, three different soil constitutive models for granular soils were<br />implemented in the numerical simulation of a full-scale reinforced soil segmental wall in order to<br />predict the wall response during construction. The soil constitutive models in the order of<br />complexity are: linear elastic-perfectly plastic Mohr-Coulomb, Duncan-Chang hyperbolic, and a<br />nonlinear elastic-plastic hardening model. The latter, which can be regarded as a modified version<br />of the Mohr-Coulomb model, captures the nonlinear stress-dependent soil response. The nonlinear<br />model can consider soil dilative behavior. In this regard, it keeps the simplicity in the formulation<br />together with the accuracy in the prediction of soil response. By comparing the results, in general,<br />there is good and acceptable accordance between numerical simulations and field measurements. It<br />is seen that using a simple soil model can acceptably predict the performance of reinforced walls.<br />However, the disadvantage relates to poorness in the prediction of wall facing displacement, which<br />is sensitive to proper consideration of deformation parameters in a soil model. The accuracy of the<br />prediction can be augmented by adopting reasonable functions for elastic (stiffness) and plastic<br />(dilatancy) parameters with respect to the stress condition within the soil backfill.
Soil constitutive models
reinforced soil wall
response prediction
numerical analysis
geosynthetic
reinforcements
soil dilatancy
2015
02
01
125
141
http://ijstc.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2761_80cefdcd8fc825e65ec0a32d821761c1.pdf
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology Transactions of Civil Engineering
2228-6160
2228-6160
2015
39
C1
PREDICTION OF SOIL-WATER CHARACTERISTIC CURVE USING GENE EXPRESSION PROGRAMMING
Soil–Water Characteristic Curve (SWCC) is one of the most important parts of any<br />model that describes unsaturated soil behavior as it explains the variation of soil suction with<br />changes in water content. In this research, Gene Expression Programming (GEP) is employed as<br />an artificial intelligence method for modelling of this curve. The principal advantage of the GEP<br />approach is its ability to generate powerful predictive equations without any prior assumption on<br />the possible form of the functional relationship. GEP can operate on large quantities of data in<br />order to capture nonlinear and complex relationships between variables of the system. The selected<br />inputs for modelling are the initial void ratio, initial gravimetric water content, logarithm of<br />suction normalized with respect to atmospheric air pressure, clay content, and silt content. The<br />model output is the gravimetric water content corresponding to the assigned input suction.<br />Sensitivity and parametric analyses are conducted to verify the results. It is also shown that clay<br />content is the most influential parameter in the soil–water characteristic curve. The results<br />illustrate that the advantages of the proposed approach are highlighted.
Unsaturated soil
soil–water characteristic curve
artificial intelligence
gene expression programming
2015
02
01
143
165
http://ijstc.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2763_494883c8b9200888befd765acbc03c25.pdf
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology Transactions of Civil Engineering
2228-6160
2228-6160
2015
39
C1
ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR CALCULATION OF BEARING CAPACITY OF SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS ON GEOGRID-REINFORCED SAND SLOPE
The bearing capacity of foundations resting on slopes is commonly calculated using<br />empirical equations. In recent years, it has been demonstrated that geosynthetic reinforced soil can<br />enhance the foundation bearing capacity. In this paper, an analytical method for determination of<br />the ultimate bearing capacity of surface strip footing on a sand slope reinforced with geogrid layers<br />is presented. The angle of the slope with the horizontal direction is varied within 20o to 40o. In this<br />study, the Coulomb-type lateral earth pressure theory has been used to compute the foundation<br />bearing capacity. It is assumed that geogrid layers act such that the active earth pressures are<br />reduced. The results obtained from the proposed method are compared with experimental and<br />numerical results. Parametric studies have also been performed to show the effects of contributing<br />parameters such as number of geogrid layers, locations of reinforcement layers, soil properties and<br />the slope angle on the bearing capacity of strip foundations resting on the reinforced sand. The<br />results indicate that the magnitude of bearing capacity of strip footings on the sand slope can be<br />significantly increased by using geogrid layers.
Geogrid-reinforced slope
strip footing
Bearing capacity
shallow foundation
2015
02
01
167
182
http://ijstc.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2765_6bec4957a09a26cb8ace6ec0156088a4.pdf
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology Transactions of Civil Engineering
2228-6160
2228-6160
2015
39
C1
THE PROPERTIES OF SCALE EFFECT ON THE DENSITY OF ROCKFILL MATERIALS BASED ON FRACTAL THEORY
To study the scale effect on the density of rockfill materials, the relative density tests<br />were carried out by physical tests and numerical tests. Fractal theory was drawn into the grading of<br />rockfill materials. Then, the fractal properties of scale effect on the density were studied by<br />physical tests and numerical tests. There are close relations between fractal dimension D and<br />densities of rockfill materials. The densities are largest when D is the critical value Dc. Further, Dc<br />is independent of the relative density Dr and the maximum diameter dmax. Truncation error is one<br />of the main factors of scale effect of densities of rockfill materials. The existing four scale methods<br />in the standard can all be explained with fractal theory, and a unified formula was suggested. The<br />achievements in the paper lay a good foundation for further studying scale effect of rockfill<br />materials with fractal theory.
Scale effect
density
rockfill material
fractal theory
PFC2D (Particle Flow Code in 2 dimension)
2015
02
01
183
200
http://ijstc.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2767_5295643772c4d53b8d317a6b2dd581b5.pdf
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology Transactions of Civil Engineering
2228-6160
2228-6160
2015
39
C1
AN INVESTIGATION OF BACTERIAL CALCIUM CARBONATE PRECIPITATION IN ORGANIC SOIL FOR GEOTECHNICAL APPLICATIONS
This study focused on the process of bacterial calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation<br />(BCCP) in organic soil. Two samples, organic soil and sand, in glass boxes having dimensions<br />6×6×2 cm were immersed in bacterial medium (Bacillus pasteurii, urea, and CaCl2) for 4 days.<br />During the treatment period, the samples were treated with urea medium and CaCl2 every 6 h.<br />Changes in pH values were monitored at different time intervals. At the end of the treatment<br />period, the amount of CaCO3 was determined with a calcimeter test. The test results showed that<br />the pH values fluctuated between 9 and 9.4 during the treatment period. This range of pH values<br />indicates that the treatment medium is appropriate for BCCP. The amount of precipitated CaCO3<br />in the organic soil sample increased about 8% compared with the untreated sample. Calcium<br />carbonate precipitation in sand is found to be higher than the organic soil. The results were<br />supported by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis and Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX)<br />analysis.
Bacillus pasteurii
organic soil
bacterial calcium carbonate precipitation
calcimeter test
2015
02
01
201
205
http://ijstc.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2768_e820632390aed4e03e31dacc7c37027f.pdf
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology Transactions of Civil Engineering
2228-6160
2228-6160
2015
39
C1
CANONICAL FORMS FOR CALCULATING THE EIGENFREQUENCIES AND BUCKLING LOADS OF SYMMETRIC SPACE TRUSSES
For dynamic analysis of structure, the calculation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors is<br />necessary. When the structural models are symmetric, such calculation can be simplified using<br />some of the concepts of graph theory. In this paper, two methods are presented for eigensolution of<br />space Truss. The first method uses a graph model and employs a decomposition and healing<br />process for factorization of the graph model and calculating the eigenvalues of graph. The second<br />approach uses the canonical forms for the construction of submatrices, from which, the<br />eigenvalues can be obtained. Both methods lead to identical results.
free vibration
Forced vibration
canonical forms
Graph Theory
buckling load
space trusses
2015
02
01
207
213
http://ijstc.shirazu.ac.ir/article_2769_4637345c16bc9bad72c5a27a9a8cc586.pdf