Dept. of Water Eng., Shiraz University, Shiraz, I. R. of Iran
Effluent from RO (Reverse Osmosis) systems during recovery gradually becomes concentrated and supersaturated with soluble salts such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3), calcium sulfate (CaSO4), barium sulfate (BaSO4) and silica (SiO2). Thus we were looking for procedures to prevent precipitation of soluble salts on the membrane surface and decrease membrane permeability. Therefore, recovery could be limited by the precipitation potentials of these salts. The objective of this research was to investigate methods to achieve maximum efficiency for precipitation of soluble salts in RO effluent by ZLD process. This research was conducted on samples collected and tested from RO system effluent in Tange Alhad, Hajiabad, Zarin Dasht, Darab city, Fars province, Iran. In bench-scale for Ca removal, chemical precipitation with sodium hydroxide and fluidized bed crystallization and for silica removal adsorption with alum and sodium aluminate were used. The optimum ZLD processes for Ca and silica removal was fluidized bed crystallization with 100 mg/L of sodium aluminate and 100 mg/L NaOH. In this ZLD method Silica and Calcium concentrations reduced by 90 and 55 percent, respectively.